An electrical vehicle commonly known as EV is an automobile that runs on an electrical motor instead of an internal combustion engine. Electrical energy used instead of fossils fuel to provide power to Automobile. The History of the electrical vehicles starts from backdated 18 Century, at that time the vehicle used for only short distance coverage.
Till 1915 it is popular after the ready availability of fossil fuels and the introduction of the IC engine let it be less popular. At that time the biggest drawback is the electrification of the world, charging of batteries, and Range. Only a few metropolitan cities had an infrastructure of electricity. This causes a backlash of charging stations. After the increase of petroleum prices and concern about emission gases by an environmentalist in the mid-1970s paved the way for renewable energy such as Solar, Wind, Hydropower, Geothermal.
Further scientists think for the alternative to Petrol / Diesel power vehicles. At that time 20% to 30% of air pollution is contributed by automobiles, including trucks, car bikes, etc. This let to think for alternative clean energy to zero-emission vehicles such as EV. In order to make EV adoptable, the drawback such as the charging range must be addressed. In the 1980s the introduction of dry battery (Lithium-ion) make the revolution and gives answers to the drawback faced a century agoAlthough in the world modern EV development starts in the mid-1970s which results in commercial production in the mid-2000s. Some of the famous types of EVs are Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), commonly known as simple EV and Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The commercial production of EV depends upon the condition and acceptability of a particular region. For example, in Pakistan, we had seen demand for HEV only because of low operating expenses as compared to conventional cars.
The Government of Pakistan had finalized the electrical vehicle policy for two-wheeler three-wheeler buses and trucks while skipping four-wheeler. It is approved for implementation on 10 June 2020. It aims to bring half a million electric motorcycles and rickshaws, along with more than 100,000 electric cars, buses and trucks, into the transportation system over the next five years. The goal is to have at least 30 percent of all vehicles running on electricity by 2030.
It gives various tax and investment incentives such for potential investors. These benefits were given in light of the fact that Electrical vehicles cost 40% to 60% more than the conventional vehicle. By given incentives, the vehicle will be launched at attractive pricing to make it affordable and acceptability Pakistani market. From policy perspectives, the manufacturing, quality, investment, and pricing incentives were addressed but operational feasibility is neglected somehow consider the current condition of the country such as charging, electrification, and repair/Maintenance, etc.